In June 2014, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the leader of the Islamic State (IS), announced the restoration of the caliphate and created a de-facto political entity over the main parts of Iraq and Syria.
This announcement followed the Islamic State’s take-over of Mosul in Northern Iraq, which was the biggest city the group ever controlled. After the rapid development of the IS in Iraq in June 2014 which ended in the capture of huge territories, almost reaching the gates of Baghdad, the Caliphate extended from the Turkish border in the North to the Saudi Arabian border in the south, and from the Syrian desert in the West to the Iraqi Kurdistan outskirts in the East. One year later, despite fighting versus all parties in Syria and Iraq, and the entry of the US-led international coalition in the war, the Islamic State has managed to keep control of an important territory, advancing in some areas while retreating in others … (read full article in French and in English on The Maghreb and orient Courier)
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